Journey through landless people.... Let's voice out for voiceless people who displaced by war,Natural disaster , Mass development activities and Human & Elephant Co-Existence issue and Plantation workers of Sri Lanka
Powered by Blogger.
Latest Post

Sri Lankan Govt informs apex court It's opting out of sampur India-Sri Lanka coal-fired power project

Written By Joining Hands Network on Tuesday, September 13, 2016 | 8:03 PM

The Sri Lankan government on Tuesday told the Supreme Court that it is opting out of the India-Sri Lanka Joint Venture to set up a coal-fired 500 MW power at Sampur in the Eastern Province.
The ill-fated JV between the Ceylon Electricity Board and the National Thermal Power Corporation of India (NTPC) has been on the drawing board since 2006 and has faced many challenges in the past ten years.  
The Sri Lankan government’s decision to abandon coal as the fuel is in line with the Sirisena-Wickremesinghe government’s policy of protecting the country’s environment. The government wants investors to generate power using Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) or diesel.
However, the final decision on the Sampur power plant will have to be taken by the India-Sri Lanka governmental Joint Working Group (JWG). No unilateral decision can be taken by either country.
Sri Lankan President Maithipala Sirisena had informally sounded Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi about Si Lanka’s inability to continue with the coal fired plant at Sampur, but no official communication on this has yet been sent by Colombo.

Irudeniyaya farmers conducted a protest

Written By Joining Hands Network on Wednesday, September 7, 2016 | 5:15 AM

Irudeniyaya farmers conducted a protest at Polpithigama Divisional Secretariate in Kurunegala. more than 1000 people took aprt at the protest and demanded to stop the concept and idea of the Elephant corridor in Irudeniyaya today 07.09.2016.

the Dark Act and the Impact of GMOs

World Food Day and the Food Week of Action , October 09-20, 2016

Written By Joining Hands Network on Thursday, September 1, 2016 | 2:27 AM

World Food Day and the Food Week of Action October 9-20th, 2016 Our faith calls us to work for a world where everyone has sufficient, healthy and culturally appropriate food and those who produce and prepare the food are fairly compensated, respected and celebrated! Global Food Week of Action begins on Sunday, October 9 and includes the International Day for Rural Women, October 15, World Food Day on Sunday, October 16 and the International Day for the Eradication of Poverty, October 17. Farmers' Day October 20th

I have learned about the dumpster diving and it is importance in Montreal

http://quebec.huffingtonpost.ca/2016/08/09/recycler-nourriture-gaspillage-dechetarisme_n_11412524.html http://m.huffpost.com/qc/entry/11412524

World Social Forum in Montreal held since 09th-14th Aug 2016

PA coordinator Francis Raajan took part at the inauguration ceremony of the World Social Forum 2016. and highlighted the Land grabbing issue is a key issue for the food sovereignty.

Survey department officials withrew demacating the Pallimunai people's land after the people's protest on 23rd Aug 2016

 23.08.2016 government survey department officials have come to survey the land of Pallimunai which land was occupied by navy in 1990 during the war period . there were 25 families were in that land before navy was occupied. so people have filed 19 cases against to the navy on 2013.02.11.since then 21 hearings were held. the next hearing will be held on September 2016. the  decision is still in pending. meanwhile people heard that their land is going to be demarcated on 23rd august 2016. so people went to meet the Divisional secretary and complained to stop the surveying the people's land which occupied by navy .but it didn't work out. therefore the people came to the street today when the officials came to survey their land. after the people's agitation, the officials of survey department have withdrawn from surveying the land of Pallimunai.

it is a another small victory of people's collective effort. let us salute for Pallimunai people's consisting struggle.

let's pray and join hands with Pallimunai people until releasing their land and resettle in their own land.

Written By Joining Hands Network on Thursday, June 30, 2016 | 9:33 AM

District Seminar was held in Trincomalee on various land issues on 30th June 2016


Press meet held at Uva wellassa Women organization onMonaragala land issue on 20th June 2016

Irudeniyaya People protest againist the the Elephant corridor which suppose to build for tourism purpose on 21st June 2016

more than 6000 people came to street in Rambe Junction in Kurunegala District against to the Harmful elephant corridor construction. farmers came to street and stopped placing foundation stone for elephant corridor.

Paanama people protest againist the eviction notice of Lahugala Divisional Secretary on 21st June 2016

PA coordinator conduct a workshop on Food Soveriegnty in Montreal

pa COORDINATOR CONDUCTED A WORKSHOP on food sovereignty at University of Montreal in Canada. youths took part in the workshop. PA coordinator Francis Raajan has shared his experience of Sri Lanka. and further he explains how mass tourism affects the food sovereignty. So He oppose mass tourism and propose community tourism.

valigamam north displaced people's collective meeting held at Yarl Pady on 17th June 2016

meeting with Pasikuda fisher folks on 13th June 2016

Press meet held at Yarl Pady on 17th June 2016

Media briefing on Paanama Land struggle

Written By Joining Hands Network on Thursday, June 2, 2016 | 11:46 AM

Media Briefing was held on Paanama Land struggle and their challenges at Library and Documentation service Board in Colombo on 01st June 2016 - Mr.Somasiri Said that Divisional secretary has sent a letter to move from Ragamvila where the people are living under tents

48 people displaced due to subsidence in Pilimathalawa ,Giragama Estate in Kandy Distrrict

Written By Joining Hands Network on Tuesday, May 24, 2016 | 2:42 AM

48 people displaced due to subsidence in Pilimathalawa ,Giragama Estate in Kandy Distrrict. பிலிமத்தலாவ கிராகம தோட்டத்தில் நிலத்தாழ் இறக்கம்! 48 பேர் இடப்பெயர்வு கண்டி, பிலிமத்தலாவ பிரதேசத்திற்குட்பட்ட கிராகம தோட்டத்தில் பாரிய நிலம் தாழ் இறக்கம் ஏற்பட்டுள்ளது. இதன்காரணமாக, குறித்த பகுதியிலுள்ள 13 குடும்பங்களை சேர்ந்த 48 பேர் இடம்பெயர்ந்துள்ளனர். குறித்த அனைவரும், பிள்ளை பராமறிப்பு நிலையங்களிலும் தோட்ட உத்தியோகஸ்த்தர் குடியிருப்புக்களிலும் தங்க வைக்கப்பட்டுள்ளமை குறிப்பிடத்தக்கது

Paanama people celebrated the Vesak full moon Day at Ragamvila village and Rebuild their temple

Written By Joining Hands Network on Sunday, May 22, 2016 | 10:08 PM

Paanama-Ragamvila people rebuild their Valukarama Temple which was ignited in 2011 by well known unknown people. Therefore the villagers conducted spiritual procession from the main road (Paanama-Puttuvil) to their own village.More than 200 people participated in the event. Herewith, The villagers have placed a Buddha stature and Bo- tree on 21 of May and celebrated the Vesak full moon Day . This event is also other step to show their land rights and ownership of their village.

Massive boulders moving down at Pattiyagama in Central province of Sri Lanka

101 persons from 26 families have been displaced due to massive boulders moving down at Pattiyagama in Deltota in central province of Sri Lanka. தெல்தொட்ட பிரதேச செயலகத்திற்குட்பட்ட பட்டியகம பிரதேசத்தில் பாரிய கற்கள் நகர்வு காரணமாக 26 குடும்பங்களை சேர்ந்த 101 பேர் இடம்பெயர்ந்துள்ளனர்.read more

subsidence in Pussellawa- Displaced 45 families

புஸ்ஸல்லாவையில் நிலம் தாழ் இறக்கம் - 45 குடும்பங்கள் இடம் பெயர்வு உடபளாத்த பிரதேச செயலகத்திற்கு உட்பட்ட கோகம தோட்டத்தில் தொடர்ந்து பெய்து வரும் மழையால் நிலம் தாழ் இறங்கியுள்ளது. இதனால் லயன் குடியிருப்பு தொகுதிகள் வெடிப்புற்ற நிலையில் 45 குடும்பங்களைச் சேர்ந்த 147 பேர் இடம்பெயர்ந்துள்ளதாக தெரிவிக்கப்படுகின்றது.read more

Workshop on Physical Plan and Land laws of sri Lanka

Written By Joining Hands Network on Sunday, May 8, 2016 | 10:47 PM

Praja Abhilasha Network has organized a two days residential workshop on Physical plan and Land laws of Sri Lanka at Oruthota Chalets hotel in Digana , Sri Lanka. 26 participants were present for the workshop from around the country. The workshop was conducted under the Theme of "Land, Water, Development and Role of citizen in the context of National Development Strategy" Mr.Jagath Liyanarachchi and Mr. Sajeewa Chamikara have taken part as resource person and educated the Praja Abhilasha Network partners. The objective of the workshop is to mobilize the people after the workshop based on the impacts of the National Physical plan.

Workshop on Physical plan and land laws of Sri Lanka held in Oruthota Chalets hotel in Digana on 6-7 May

Paanam people's land were not still demarcated by the government

The Praja Abhilasha Network' coordinator Francis Raajan and NAFSO colleagues have visited to Paanama to discuss about the present situation and the way forward. Here The people stated that the have to move towards obtaining their lands which were released by the Cabinet decision on 11th Feb 2015. In the other hand people are unable to get the court order in written therefore people are going to the land forcefully through using by pass road. Here people had a discussion with the Team and took few decision. according to the decision Panama people suppose to meet the Eastern Province governor within the month of May. Herewith people decided to stay continuously inn the Ragamvila village until the land is demarcated by the government.

Invitation: Female Food Heroes - public forum on women's role in the food system

Written By Joining Hands Network on Tuesday, April 26, 2016 | 11:50 PM

28th April 2016 from 09.30 am to 01.00 pm Western Province Aesthetic Resort Stanley Wijesundara Mawatha, Colombo 7 Women play an integral role in food production in Sri Lanka. Female food producers provide immense contribution to ensuring the country’s food security, economic growth and the practice of fair and sustainable food production mechanisms. Despite all this, the active contribution of women to the local food system remains invisible. Female food producers are not given any significance in national level policies. There is an overall absence of a public discourse on the importance of women farmers. Development practices at local and international levels have proven that acknowledging and recognizing the role of women in food production whilst providing them with safeguards of favourable policies and programs would not only uplift women’s livelihoods, but also fortifies the country’s overall economy and food security status. Especially at a juncture where Sri Lanka is shifting to a more environmentally friendly sustainable agricultural system, women have the capacity to be active agents of change in this process. Female Food Heroes is a campaign launched by Oxfam with number of other civil society organizations like MONLAR, NAFSO and Savistri to recognize and support women’s role in the food system (https://www.facebook.com/femalefoodheroesSL) . Campaign has held a series of island wide community consultations and discussions with female food producers of different sectors. As a result, we have formulated a list of recommendations to provide a more stable and favourable context for women farmers at policy and program levels. We are organizing a public forum to present the aforementioned recommendations to the Ministers of Agriculture, Women’s Affairs and Fisheries on 28th April 2016 from 09.30 am to 01.00 pm at The Western Province Aesthetic Resort on Stanley Wijesundara Mawatha, Colombo 7. We would greatly value your participation for this event. Attached herewith are the recommendations that will be handed over tomorrow.

Workshop held at Tamarind tree hotel 06-07 April 2016

Written By Joining Hands Network on Monday, April 18, 2016 | 1:41 AM

PA steering Committee meeting held in Negombo

Praja Abhilasha Network's steering committee meeting was held on 01st April 2016 at the NAFSO premises in Negombo. 11 members were present for the meeting.

Panama Lands Are belongs to community - court case back fired on Police

Written By Joining Hands Network on Wednesday, March 30, 2016 | 1:13 PM

Police had been filed a court case against Panama people stating that they have been illegally entered in to SL Air Force properties on 27th of March 2016. Panama land grab victims had been entered to their land properties which grabbed by the previous government on 2010 and releasing decision had issued by present cabinet of " Yaha Palana" (good governance) government on 2015 Feb 11th. After 30 hours of entering of people, local authorities of the government have entered to the occupied area and promised to release the lands befor Singhala Tamil new year on April as done in several previous occasions, after having a dialogue with protesters. Meantime, Police have filled a case against 10 of the victims in fight for their lands on charges with intrude in to Airforce properties. But actual situation is, Air Force is the real intruders (in generally Military force). Today ( 30 th March), magistrate freed Panama people from charges and stated that they have not violated any of charges made by police and thoroughly warned police not to involve in any of peacefull acts on those lands any more while advising people to act peacefully in future too. Further more magistrate ordered remove all barriers which are preventing access to those lands to the land owned people. This is a long waited victory for the people who were chased away after burning down their houses in 2010. Still struggle continues until government do the demarcations and draw plans of each land plots and then divided among original owners in fair manner.

Protest againist Port City project will be held on 04th April 2016 in Colombo

Written By Joining Hands Network on Monday, March 28, 2016 | 9:53 PM

Paanama People entered focibily into their own village Ragamvila on 27th March 2016

https://www. facebook.com/BBCSinhala/videos/614954368662315/

VNDPC meeting held at YARL Paady Hotel in Jaffna on 10th March 2016

Written By Joining Hands Network on Monday, March 14, 2016 | 11:02 PM

Valigamam North displaced people's collective (VNDPC)meeting held at YARL Paady Hotel in Jaffna. 30 people were present for the meeting. The President of the VNDPC Mr. Ratnaraja lead the discussion and few decisions were taken.Mr.Herman Kumara the President of Praja Abhilasha Network and Local coordinator Francis Raajan and The Network Member of Priyankara and Jesudasan were present for the meeting. The meeting was organized by Inbanayagam -coordinator of Rural Labour Organization

Drought in Tea Plantation areas , Workers are helpless

The management are insisting the worker to pluck 18kg for the day wages but due to the drought , the workers are unable er to pluck 18kg per day. at the same time the production also are decreasing day by day therefore the workers are unable to go to work every day. This situation has been affected the their day to day lives. The youth are moving to other district for finding employments.

Land Rights for Women- Happy women's Day

Written By Joining Hands Network on Tuesday, March 8, 2016 | 1:00 AM

Praja Abhilasha Network is emphasizing the Women's land right should be respected.At the same time, The women customary land rights also should be recognized and legalized by the Sri Lanka government soon.

Kandavalai People in Nortehrn Province are facing land issues - Says Divisional Secretary

25592 members from 80,055 families have been resettled since 2009 in 16 GN divisions of Kandavalai Divisional secretary area in Kilinochchi District. even if the people resettled, the people are facing many issues. but the major issue is Land issue.says R.Mugunthan -the Divisonal Secretary of Kandavalai in Kilinochchi district of Northern province of Sri Lanka.

Discussion held between representatives of Sri Lnaka Tourism Board and the Pasikuda fisher folks on 04th March 2016

Written By Joining Hands Network on Saturday, March 5, 2016 | 5:17 PM

Public demonstration Against Sampur Coal Power Plant on 2nd March 2016


The Sampur people protested against the Coal Power Plant which proposed to build in Sampur fertile land. the protest was commenced around 07.00am on 02nd March 2016. fisheries societies and farmer's societies and NGOs and other civil societies were join hands with the protest.

dialogue with Director General of Office for Nagtional Unity and Reconciliation on 25.02.2016

Written By Joining Hands Network on Thursday, February 25, 2016 | 11:23 PM

Pasikkuda fisher folks issues meeting held on 22.02.2016

Pasikkuda people discussed their issue at the Anchoring point in Pasikkuda and further said that the fisher folk do not have a place to have a meeting becasue of their anchoring point land is supposed to occupy by the tourism authorities. so the fishers emphasized that the need  their own place where they are exist now. they will not give up their land in any circumstances. also people decided to hand ove a petition to the District secretary and Divisional Secretary in order to gain the land title for their anchoring point and their residence.  

Meeeting on Paanama Land issue at Paanama Tample Hall

The Local coordinator of PA has convened the meeting on 21st Feb 2016 . There were 27 people present for the meeting and discussed about the present situatin of the Paanama. People have decided to meet the the public representation committee on new constitution at Ampara on 28th Feb.

PA submission on Plantation Community at the Public Representation Committee Hearing

Written By Joining Hands Network on Saturday, February 20, 2016 | 8:11 AM

The public representation committee hearing on New constitution  held at the District secretariat in Nuwara Eliya today on 20.02.2016. The Praja Abhilasha coordinator Francis Raajan has attended and submitted the recommendation on Plantation land rights to the Committee at the event. at the same time, Raajan has given the oral statement also to the committee. Raajan especially highlighted the following matters such as: Right to Adequate Housing and agricultural land for plantation people (1) Everyone should have the right to have access to adequate housing with 20 perches land; (2) Estate workers should be recognized as small farmers. (3) Everyone should have the right to have access to ½ acre agricultural land in order to promote their livelihood as small farmers and the state should be ensured that organic farming only to be promoted in the hill country. (4) Land rights should be legalized as fundamental right. (5) Estate workers land rights should be enacted in the legislation of Sri Lanka. (6) Estate people should obtain the opportunities during the decision making process on hill country development plan. (7) Plantation people’s customary rights should be legalized through implementing the Voluntary guideline of Governance of Tenure on forest and fisheries and land tenure. (8) The State must take reasonable legislative and other measures, within its available resources, to achieve the progressive realisation of this right; (9) No one may be evicted from their home, or have the home demolished, without an order of court made after considering all the relevant circumstances; (10) No legislation may permit arbitrary evictions. The PA coordinator has emphasized the importance of the land rights of the plantation workers.

Thotalaga slums people in Colombo have been evicted forcefully even if the people have documents for their habitats

Written By Joining Hands Network on Wednesday, February 17, 2016 | 5:40 AM

Jana Asuna program addressed the Irudeniyaya issue on 13.02.2016

Host Forum in Pasikuda on New Tourism Development

Written By Joining Hands Network on Monday, February 15, 2016 | 10:04 AM

The forum was started at 04.00pm at the Maalu Maalu Hotel in Pasikuda. Hoteliers, Travel operators, Fisher leaders and Studioses representatives were present for the meeting.

watch the vedio - The state responsibility is to solve the north east land issues

Written By Joining Hands Network on Thursday, February 11, 2016 | 8:26 PM

Street Protest was conduct in Front of the Galle face in Colombo demanding to stop land grabbing.

More than 700 people participated in the protest from all over the part of the country where people have been facing alnd issues specially in Mullikkulam, Valigamam from Jaffna District, Mullikkulam, Sampur, Irudeniyaya, Monaragala people who affected by Uma Oya project, Matara, Galle, Kalutara, Gampaha, Puttalam, Kalpitiya, Polonnaruwa, Ampara from Ashrof Nagar , Pallimunai from Mannar District , Batticaloa and Badulla and Hatton were present. the leaders of each area were able to go to the Presidential secretariat and Prime Minister's Secretariat (Temple Tree) and handed over a petition to the relevant officials.

Public forum on Land Rights held in Colombo

Public forum of Land Rights and Street protest which was conducted today ,11.02.2016 by People's Allaince for Right to Land (PARL). PA / NAFSO and MONLAR are Co - organizers of this event which held at CMU hall in Colombo. The objective of this event is " even if the government was changed , still people are unable to get their land as people expected by regime change. so people demand to release their land and demand the government to fulfill their election promises as given. More than 700 people took part in the event today. Parliament member.Mr.Jayampathi Wickramaratna and constitutional commission member also were present for event. we have handed over a collective proposal for the new constitution to the constitutional commission member. During the Forum , we specially highlighted the Valigamam , Kalpitiya, Irudeniyaya, Sampur, Mullikkulam, Pallimunai, Uma Oya , Port city and Pasikuda land issues where PA is engaging. The Forum was begun at 10.30 am and concluded around 01.00pm. after that people have come to the street and protest in demanding to release their land.

Media briefing was conducted by ODP

Written By Joining Hands Network on Tuesday, February 9, 2016 | 9:59 AM

A media briefing was colnducted by th organization for displaced people at Yarl Paady Hotel on 09th Feb, 2016.

Organization for Displaced people in Valigamam North was formed

The people who displaced from valigamam north and have been living in the IDP welfare camps was formed a new organization to address their issues today on 09th February 2016. So the people met at YARL PADY hotel in Jaffna and discussed on their issue and decided to form a organization in order to work on the relocated people's issues and the people who live still in the IP camps and host families.

People’s Forum for Land Rights on 11th Feb, 2016 at CMU hall in Colombo

Written By Joining Hands Network on Saturday, February 6, 2016 | 9:16 AM

we are organizing a People’s Forum for Land Rights on 11th of February 2016. On 11th of February the cabinet decision of releasing Paanama land back to the community completes one year, but the people are yet to get their land back. While there are some progresses in other cases of acquired land (Sampur, Valikamam, etc) large number of people are still remain displaced and new threats of displacements are also emerging. This forum will bring communities of Paanama, Sampur, Kalpitiya, Mullikulam, Valikamam North, Irudeniyaya, Monaragala and people who will be affected by Port City project to force the Government in implementing its promises of giving the land back to their owners. During the Forum communities will reveal their current situation. PARL will also hand over its proposals for constitution in ensuring people’s right to their land to the constitutional reforms committee. The Assembly will follow with a protest march. On 11th morning the Organization for the Protection of Paanama patthuwa (community organization in Paanama) will lodge a complaint to the Human Right Commission about the delay in implementing the cabinet decision.read more

Praja Abhilasha Network's Steering Committee Held today on 05th Feb 2016 in Negombo

Written By Joining Hands Network on Friday, February 5, 2016 | 8:04 AM

Praja Abhilasha steering Committee meeting was conducted in Negombo. Rev.Thomas John and Rev.Garry have been taken part in the meeting. 18 members of the Steering Committee were present and discussed about the Present situation of the Mullikkulam issue, sampur, Kuchcheveli, Valigamam, Pasikuda, Kalpitiya and Irudeniyaya issues.Also The committee decided to demand to include the right to life , and right to food sovereignty in the new constitution. Also the committee was highlighted the Economic, Social and Cultural rights should be included .

Round Table discussion on development on Sustainable Tourism in Sri Lanka held in Colombo

Written By Joining Hands Network on Wednesday, February 3, 2016 | 10:04 AM

A Round Table discussion was conducted in Colombo at the Sri Lanka Foundation Institute on Sustainable tourism Development. affected communities from the Pasikuda, Kuchchaveli, jaffna, Kalpitiya have taken part and addressed how they affected in terms of Present tourism development projects and hoteliers. More than 75 people took part in the Round Table discussion. PA and NAFSO put forward the Six step to the government and Tour operators and explained the importance. STEP 1: The State Shall Fully implement the Tenure Guidelines on land, fisheries and forests through participatory, inclusive mechanisms that prioritize the rights and needs of legitimate tenure users, especially women. STEP 2: Ensure the free, prior and informed consent for all communities affected by land transfers, and all kind of land use which are not initiated by local communities, including the fair and equitable participation of all groups within local communities, especially excluded and marginalized groups such as women, children, minorities, the elderly and disabled. STEP 3: Review public policies and projects that incentivize land grabbing, and instead support policies that prioritize the needs of small-scale food producers – particularly women – and sustainable land use. STEP 4: Guarantee protection against human rights violations committedby third parties, such as businesses. This calls for appropriate measures to prevent, investigate, prosecute and compensate for human rights violations. STEP 5: Hotels, Investors and Travel Agencies should respect human rights and avoid negative impactsthat are caused directly or through their business relations. In order to assume responsibility, they should possess corresponding principles and procedures and act with due diligence. STEP 6: The State shall take adequate measures to provide access to an effective remedy and appropriate compensation for the affected parties. In addition to judicial mechanisms, states must also provide non-judicial grievance mechanisms. Moreover, businesses should also provide effective grievance mechanisms at an operative level, or participate in such mechanisms.

Round Table Discussion on Development on Sustainable Tourism in Sri Lanka will be held in Colombo

Written By Joining Hands Network on Tuesday, February 2, 2016 | 2:36 AM

NAFSO/ PA and STP- Swiss organization is planning for a round table dialogue with policy makers, hoteliers, investors, and possible other groups who are engage in tourism business. The program will be held on 3rd February at SLFI, Independence Avenue from 2.30-5.30pm. We invite some community representatives too to discuss the matters related to their livelihood rights, tenure rights and to raise other concerns of the coastal communities. Our aim is to emphasis the Economic Social and Cultural rights of the communities and ensure all the businesses respect the HR. Herewith, community members, government officials, politicians,Religious leaders, Representatives from diplomatic missions, Non governmental organizations and civil organizations will take part in the event.

Main Activities

01. Conducting Research.
02. Pressurizing for land rights.
03. Mobilizing the landless people.
04. File court cases regarding land issues.
05. Networking the affected communities.
06. Providing Trainings for leaders.
07. Conduct workshops.
 
Support : Creating Website | Johny Template | Mas Template
Copyright © 2011. Praja Abhilasha Network - All Rights Reserved
Template Created by Creating Website Published by Mas Template
Proudly powered by Blogger